10 years and about 40,000 kms on my Ural
I bought my Ural Tourist (1WD) model new in April 2004. In ten years it's only stranded me twice, and both were in the last two months. Typically, it was weird but simple Ural stuff. Basically, a nut behind the front engine cover which holds the rotor tight had come loose. Tightened it and the bike was fine. Second, battery gave up the ghost after a seven-year run. Had a few oddball electrical gremlins when I first bought the bike but all were fixed by me and my wrenching buddies under warranty; IMZ (manufacturer of Urals) sent us the parts under warranty: new key switch and new ignition switch fixed the problem of bike suddenly shutting off.
The Urals do get better with every years and significant leaps forward occurred in 2004, 2006, 2010, 2012, and now fuel-injection and disc brakes on all three wheels in 2014 as well as a hydraulic steering dampener.
Change your oil every 3,000 klicks (engine, tranny, and final drive), check and adjust the valves as needed (valves eventually settle in and need adjusting much less after about 10,000 klicks), keep the bike at 50-60 mph, and these Russian mules will go roll on and on like the airheads from which they are descended. There's a noticeable improvement in the engines at about the 15,000-20,000 kilometer mark (horsepower probably soars from 40 to 42), but the tranny, well, as say in the Ural world "loud shifts save lives."